Recently, anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies were proposed for the serological diagnosis of celiac disease. We evaluate the specificity of different anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies ELISA in comparison with conventional anti-native gliadin kits. Serum samples from 46 non celiac patients were analyzed by five different quantitative ELISA for anti-native gliadin, anti-deamidated gliadin and anti-transglutaminase neo-epitope antibodies together with a screening ELISA. Twenty-four percent of the patients demonstrated anti-native gliadin IgA and 63% IgG antibodies. Using anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies, the number of false positive IgA and, particularly, IgG results, markedly decreased in the non celiac patients: 21 and 24% respectively with anti-Gliadin (GAF-3X) Euroimmun kit, 7 and 26% with Bindazyme Human Anti-Gliadin (MGP) The Binding Site kit and 0 and 41% with Celiac G+ Immco kit. The new assay which makes use of the physiological complex of tissue transglutaminase cross-linked with deamidated gliadin peptides, called neo-epitope, did not improve the differential diagnosis of celiac disease with 30% of false positive results in IgG (2% in IgA). Using the Inova screening kit, a positive result for IgA and/or IgG anti-deamidated gliadin and/or anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies was obtained in 24% of the non celiac patients. In conclusion, our study assessed the superiority, in terms of specificity, of anti-deamidated gliadin antibodies, over the conventional anti-gliadin antibodies for the differential diagnosis of celiac disease.
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