Morbidity disease rate (Total 2381885 Papers Found)

Copyright © 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society. Malignant gliomas account for approximately 70% of the 22,500 new cases of malignant primary brain tumors that are diagnosed in adults in the United States each year.1-3 Although relatively uncommon, malignant gliomas are associated with disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. Despite optimal treatment, the median survival is only 12 to 15 months for patients with glioblastomas and 2 to 5 years for patients with anaplastic gliomas. Recent ...
BACKGROUND Raising awareness of women on danger signs of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period is crucial for safe motherhood. In Ethiopia, a country where maternal morbidity and mortality is high little is known about knowledge level of pregnant women on obstetric danger signs. The objective of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge about obstetric danger signs in Aleta Wondo district, Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS A community based cross-sectional study was cond ...
BACKGROUND Gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes, quality of life, and costs of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic gastric banding. STUDY DESIGN Between 2002 and 2007, 250 patients with a body mass index of 35 to 60 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to gastric bypass or gastric banding. After exclusion, 111 patients underwent gastric bypa ...
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with the early failure of "bubble" nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). STUDY DESIGN Following resuscitation and stabilization at delivery, a cohort of 261 consecutively inborn infants (birth weight < or = 1250 g) was divided into three groups based on the initial respiratory support modality and outcome at 72 hours of age: "ventil ...
UNLABELLED Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) has a high but variable recurrence rate. Prior studies do not compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) for various surgical approaches or salvage surgery for relapse. We therefore determined: (1) RFS after excision; (2) RFS after salvage surgery for relapse; (3) factors associated with relapse. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 49 patients with previously untreated PVNS of the knee (12 localized, 37 diffuse) who were treated with ...
OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that strict perioperative glycemic control improves clinical outcomes after cardiothoracic surgery. However, optimal methods and targets for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in this setting have not been established. Currently published intensive insulin infusion protocols (IIPs) have important practical limitations, which may affect their utility. In this article, the authors present their experience with a safe, effective, nurse-driven IIP, which was imple ...
BACKGROUND Endovascular repair (EVR) is emerging as first-line treatment for patients with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome of benign etiology, but data on its durability remain scarce. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and durability of EVR and compare results of EVR with open surgical reconstruction (OSR). METHODS Data from 70 consecutive patients undergoing treatment for benign SVC syndrome between November 1983 and November 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Th ...
Salicylate intoxication remains a common problem in Britain; about 10 percent of adult hospital admissions for deliberate self-poisoning involve these drugs. Accidental salicylate poisoning in children has been considerably reduced since the introduction of child-resistant containers. In the United Kingdom, the annual number of salicylate-related deaths has fallen slightly between 1967 and 1980. Diagnosis of salicylate intoxication is made from patient history, circumstantial evidence, and commo ...
BACKGROUND RSV is recognized as the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children worldwide leading to hospitalisation in a great number of cases, especially in certain high-risk groups. The aims of the present study were to identify risk groups, outcome and incidences of hospitalisation for RSV bronchiolitis in Norwegian children under two years of age and to compare the results with other studies. METHODS We performed a population-based retrosp ...
To evaluate the short and mid-term results of prostatic artery embolization in patients with benign prostatic embolization. Retrospective study between March 2009 and June 2011 with 103 patients (mean age 66.8 years, 50-85) that met our inclusion criteria with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The clinical outcome was evaluated by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), International Index of Erectile Function, prostate volume (PV), prostate-specific antig ...
OBJECTIVES Oxytocin (OT) has long been implicated in maternal bonding, sexual behavior and social affiliation behaviors. This paper reviews the wide effects of oxytocin and its key role in well-being. METHODS Studies were identified through Medline, Pubmed, and PsychINFO search of the English-language literature from the past sixty years (1959 to 2009) using the key word "oxytocin" in human studies. Of the 287 articles identified, 102 were selected for review. RESULTS OT induces a general se ...
PURPOSE Issues surrounding the safety and efficacy of palliative laparoscopic resections for patients with Stage IV colorectal cancer have not been explicitly examined in the literature. This article describes our experience with laparoscopic procedures for patients with Stage IV colorectal cancer and compares their perioperative outcomes to a contemporaneous group of patients with clinically curable (Stages I-III) disease. METHODS A prospective database of laparoscopic resections for colorect ...
The management of symptomatic or incidentally discovered common bile duct (CBD) stones is still controversial. Of patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 5–15% will also harbor CBD stones, and those with symptoms suggestive of choledocholithiasis will have an even higher incidence. Options for treatment include preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy (ERCP/ES) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparosco ...
IN spite of better understanding and considerable improvement in the management and early care of patients with spinal cord injury, venous thrombo-embolism still remains a major complication during the acute stage after admission. The high morbidity of this vascular pathology in paraplegics has been thoroughly investi­ gated by Walsh (1965), Watson (1968) and Dollfuss (1971), who reported an incidence of thrombo-embolic complications of 13 per cent in their units. Concepts regarding the mechani ...
OBJECTIVE The study explored the phenomenology and prognostic significance of delusions in major depressive disorder. METHOD From 452 patients with DSM-III major depression, we selected those with at least one belief fulfilling both DSM-III prerequisites for a delusion (i.e., being of "delusional proportions" and being maintained with "delusional intensity"). These patients were compared to the others with respect to demographic, historical, and index episode features; time spent in a depressi ...
The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy declined significantly over the second half of the 20th century; however, it is still associated with major maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A set of systemic and renal physiological adaptive mechanisms occur during a normal gestation that will constrain several changes in laboratory parameters of renal function, electrolytes, fluid and acid-base balances. The diagnosis of acute kidney injury in pregnancy is based on the serum crea ...
BACKGROUND The authors evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) as a short-course, preoperative treatment and determined the recommended dose needed to reduce the risk of postoperative local recurrence without excess injury to normal tissue. METHODS Patients radiographically defined with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer were eligible. A preoperative, short-course, dose-escalation study was performed with fixed 8 fractions in 2 weeks. The dose of irradiatio ...
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in type 2 diabetics, and microalbuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity. We aimed to investigate the potential association between low-grade albuminuria and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Between 2009 and 2013, a retrospective study was performed in 578 patients with type 2 diabetes (339 male patients and 239 female patients) with normal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACRs; <30 mg/g) ...
BACKGROUND Alterations of sleep duration and architecture have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and specifically linked to chronic cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders, such as type 2 diabetes or depression. Measurement of sleep quality to assist in the diagnosis or treatment of these diseases is not routinely performed due to the complexity and cost of conventional methods. The objective of this study is to cross-validate the accuracy of an automated algorithm ...
In a cohort of 43 women with viable, singleton pregnancies, cervical dilatation greater than 4 cm, and absent labor between 20 and 27 weeks gestation, 22 women who underwent emergency cerclage within six hours of admission, were compared prospectively with 15 women who elected conservative bed rest treatment. The two groups were demographically similar. Emergency cervical cerclage resulted in a longer mean gestational age at delivery compared to bed rest (p = 0.001). Women treated with cerclage ...
Leptospira interrogans, hantaviruses (particularly Seoul virus), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and Toxoplasma gondii are rat-associated zoonoses that are responsible for human morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to describe the infection patterns of these four pathogens in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) across socioeconomic levels in neighbourhoods in Lyon, France. The infection or exposure status was determined using polymerase chain reaction or serology for 178 wild rats captured in ...
BACKGROUND Factors related to socioeconomic status and health care quality and management may influence mortality and morbidity rates due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). OBJECTIVE To compare mortality and morbidity in patients with AMI hospitalized in public and private hospitals. METHODS An observational study, with comparison groups. Clinical evaluation on admission, and recording of diagnostic, therapeutic and evolution data until discharge or death. Comparison of clinical character ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the early angiographic outcome in the first human subjects who underwent intracoronary atherectomy and thrombectomy using the X-Sizer helical cutting and aspiration system. Percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with thrombo-occlusive disease or friable degenerative saphenous vein grafts are associated with considerable periprocedural morbidity and mortality, predominantly related to microscopic distal embolization. X-Sizer catheter system is ...
OBJECTIVES Most previous studies on the association between moisture or mold problems in the home and respiratory symptoms in children were cross-sectional and based on self-reported exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of objectively observed moisture damage and visible mold in the homes on early-life respiratory morbidity and atopic sensitization in a birth cohort. METHODS Building inspection was performed by building engineers in the homes of 396 children, and the chil ...
Osteoporosis is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. The etiology of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients is likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors such as low body weight, hypogonadism, and smoking, as well as direct effects of chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons translates into a higher risk of fracture, likely leading to excess morbidity ...
Pulmonary edema is a problem of major clinical importance resulting from a persistent imbalance between forces that drive water into the airspace of the lung and the biological mechanisms for its removal. Here, we will first review the fundamental mechanisms implicated in the regulation of lung fluid homeostasis, namely, the Starling forces and the respiratory transepithelial sodium transport. Second, we will discuss the contribution of hypoxia to the perturbation of this fine balance and the ro ...
With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The ...
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans and affects both men and women. The clinical and public health implications of the disease are substantial because of the mortality, morbidity, and cost of medical care associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis is diagnosed on the basis of a low-impact or fragility fracture or low bone mineral density, which was best assessed by central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Both nonpharmacological therapy (calcium and vitamin D supple ...
Alcohol abuse is a well-established risk factor for injuries of all types. Despite the impact of recent public health initiatives alcohol-related traumatic and burn injury remains a considerable health and economic burden to society, with the incidence of alcohol abuse estimated to be nearly 50% of burn and trauma admissions and as high as 70% in some populations. The prevalence of both acute and chronic alcohol abuse has been shown to be high among injured patients. However, a binge-like patter ...
A multicenter randomized study is high quality, but it is also true that there are differences between institutions. The quality of treatment is consistent in a single center so comparisons in a retrospective study can be matched for many variables. This single-center study examined short-term and long-term outcomes for colorectal cancer in 258 patients who underwent laparoscopic resection (LC) and 258 matched open resection (OC) cases. The health-related qualities of life (HRQOL) at 1–2 year ...
Malnutrition is common in hemodialysis patients and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality. Although much progress has been made in recent years in identifying the causes and pathogenesis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients, as well as recognizing the link between malnutrition and morbidity and mortality, no consensus has been reached concerning its management. Along with such conventional interventions as nutritional counseling, oral nutritional supplements, and intradialytic p ...
BACKGROUND The risk of aortic valve replacement (AVR) after previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is controversial. Its magnitude influences the threshold for recommending this procedure and has been cited in arguments regarding the optimal management of mild aortic stenosis at primary CABG. We therefore reviewed our experience with reoperative AVR +/- CABG and the primary combined procedure. METHODS Between January 1, 1985, and June 30, 1996, 427 patients underwent primary AVR+CABG, ...
OBJECTIVE To review our experience of a non-selective policy for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to see if the policy was justified, and to identify any preoperative risk factors that adversely influenced outcome. DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Teaching hospital, Republic of Ireland. SUBJECTS 258 patients admitted with abdominal aortic aneurysms between January 1982 and December 1993. INTERVENTIONS Definitive surgical treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Morbidity, ...
BACKGROUND Thoracotomy is associated with significant pain and morbidity. METHODS We performed a prospective randomized trial over 4 months. Patients were randomized to a standard posterior-lateral thoracotomy or an identical procedure, except an intercostal muscle was harvested from the lower rib (to protect the intercostal nerve) before chest retraction. To ensure an equal distribution among both groups, patients were stratified by race, sex, and type of pulmonary resection. All patients rec ...
The objective of this study was to examine the association between social class of the head of household at the time of birth and mortality and morbidity during the first 10 years of life in a cohort of all 117 212 children born to women who both lived, and delivered in hospital, in Oxfordshire or West Berkshire during the period 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1988. Logistic regression was used to estimate social class gradients, with odds ratios (OR), for mortality during the early neonatal peri ...
Excess visceral fat has been found to correlate more closely with morbidity than subcutaneous fat. We found that isolated adipocytes from omental fat of nondiabetic women expressed significantly more of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter glucose transporter 4 protein and exhibited a higher basal and insulin-stimulated rate of glucose transport, at all concentrations of insulin, than subcutaneous adipocytes from the same individuals. In contrast, dose-response relationships for insulin sti ...
BACKGROUND/AIM Alcohol is the most common substance abused in Nepal. Liver disease caused by alcohol abuse, including its end stage, cirrhosis, is a major health care problem, which is difficult to treat. OBJECTIVES To study the demographic profile, laboratory parameters, complications and their prognostic implications among patients of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Records of all patients of ALD admitted from January1 , 2005 to December 31 , 2006 were studied and foll ...
HYPOTHESIS Selective non-stapling of the mesh during unilateral endoscopic total extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty (TEP) may reduce postoperative pain and morbidity rate. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Division of general surgery at a university-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENTS Two hundred patients who underwent TEP. INTERVENTION Endoscopic total extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty with and without stapling the mesh. The mesh was stapled when the diameter of the hernial d ...
Forty-two patients with neoplasms involving the cavernous sinus had operations between 1983 and 1987. The lesions included 25 benign tumors (e.g., meningioma, neurilemoma) and 17 malignant tumors (e.g., chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma). The cavernous sinus was entered by inferior, anterolateral, or medial extradural approaches or by superior or lateral intradural approaches. The intracavernous internal carotid artery was managed by dissecting tumor away from it or by occlusion and excis ...
Despite major advances in conventional medical therapy, patients with heart failure continue to experience significant morbidity and mortality. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasocontrictor and mitogenic peptide that is activated in heart failure. There is increasing experimental and clinical evidence in support of an important role of ET-1 in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Manipulation of the activity of ET-1, especially using endothelin receptor blockers, has allowed for the further el ...
A cross sectional house-to-house survey on diarrheal disease in children less than five-years-of-age was conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The main objective was to determine diarrheal disease morbidity and its relationship with different variable factors and management practices during the episode of diarrhea. The survey population included 1,105 households with 2,005 children under five-years-of-age selected from the entire Eastern Province. The prevalence observed was 7.6% du ...
BACKGROUND Abdominal wall dehiscence with an associated enterocutaneous fistula is a surgical complication with high morbidity and mortality. Management of the abdominal wall defect is complicated by the continued emergence of liquid bowel contents. PATIENTS AND METHODS Large abdominal wall wounds of 10 patients with postoperative abdominal wall dehiscence and active enterocutaneous fistulae were managed with early skin grafting directly onto the granulated abdominal viscera. RESULTS Skin gr ...
Laparoscopic truncal vagotomy with anterior seromyotomy, as described by Taylor, is our operation of choice in open surgery for elective treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer because it is a rapid, reliable and efficacious procedure. This procedure also does not have the variability of highly selective vagotomy in relation to the surgeon who is performing the operation. The technique is standardised and the results on 90 patients showed minimal morbidity and no mortality with a recurrence rate of ...
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the management of biliary and pancreatic disease. Some of the complications of the procedure, although rare, may carry significant morbidity and mortality risks. We describe the case of a 68-year-old female who underwent elective ERCP for ductal stone clearance. Immediately postprocedure, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothoraces. Further imaging revealed ...
AIM Adjuvanted influenza vaccines can overcome the poor antibody response of conventional non-adjuvanted vaccines in the elderly. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and clinical effectiveness of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) compared with a non-adjuvanted vaccine (TIV) in subjects ≥65 years old, with or without co-morbidities. METHODS In 2010-2011, subjects (N=7082) were randomized to receive one dose of aTIV or TIV. Co-primary objectives were to assess lot-t ...
AIM The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the risk factors hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a consecutive series from a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between January 2010 and May 2012, we performed 278 living donor liver transplantations, including 189 males and 89 females. We compared the risk factors between HAT and non-HAT groups according to the following variables: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), graft weight, use ...
A OUR INSTITUTION and at many other pediatric centers, there have been ongoing debates about the management of 2 distinct medical problems: hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and extreme prematurity (EP). For each problem, physicians sometimes struggle with the question of when it is appropriate to offer parents the option of providing comfort care only (CCO). HLHS and EP are very different diagnoses, and the debates about management have usually been separate and unrelated discussions. Howe ...
BACKGROUND Local therapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is divided into surgical and radiation treatment, and given to patients unable to tolerate a lobectomy. A prospective phase II study of cases that received stereotactic body radio therapy (SBRT) (JCOG0403) revealed an overall 3-year survival rate (3-YSR) of 76.0 %, 3-year relapse free survival rate (3-YRFS) of 69.0 %, and rate of morbidity of grade 3 or greater of 9 %. However, few prospective multicenter studies have rep ...
This paper gives an analytical review of epidemiological data about the morbidity and mortality rate of the flying personnel. It shows that the flying personnel differs from the general population in their better health condition which manifests as lower morbidity and mortality rates in every large group of disease. This better health status of the flying personnel may be a result of their adequate selection. The selection makes it difficult to identify relationships between disease and flight e ...
Following menopause, body fat is redistributed from peripheral to central depots. This may be linked to the age related decrease in estrogen levels. We hypothesized that estrogen supplementation could counteract this fat redistribution through tissue-specific modulation of glucocorticoid exposure. We measured fat depot masses and the expression and activity of the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in fat and liver of ovariectomized female ra ...