Norepinephrine (Total 64200 Papers Found)

BACKGROUND Excessive brain responsiveness to norepinephrine appears to contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly at night. Prazosin, a brain active alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly reduced trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in 10 Vietnam War combat veterans in a previous placebo-controlled crossover study. The current parallel group trial in a larger sample of veterans evaluated prazosin effects on trauma nightmares, sleep quality, global clinica ...
Memory consolidation is enhanced by emotional arousal, an effect mediated by noradrenergic beta-receptor signaling. Norepinephrine strengthens consolidation of both appetitive and aversive learning, and is implicated in extinction of conditioned responses. In this review, we summarize work on the noradrenergic mechanisms of extinction learning and implications for extinction-based exposure therapy. The evidence suggests that norepinephrine release evoked by conditioned stimuli during extinction ...
We investigated the properties and interaction domains of SN-6 [2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)benzyl]thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester], a newly synthesized and selective Na /Ca exchange (NCX) inhibitor. SN-6 (0.3–30 M) inhibited preferentially intracellular Na -dependent Ca uptake (i.e., the reverse mode) compared with extracellular Na -dependent Ca efflux (i.e., the forward mode) in NCX1-transfected fibroblasts. SN-6 was 3to 5-fold more inhibitory to Ca uptake in NCX1 (IC50 2.9 M) than to ...
1. COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA of the human dopamine transporter (DAT cells) or the human noradrenaline transporter (NAT cells) were loaded with [3H]-dopamine or [3H]-noradrenaline and superfused with buffers of different ionic composition. 2. In DAT cells lowering the Na+ concentration to 0, 5 or 10 mM caused an increase in 3H-efflux. Cocaine (10 microM) or mazindol (0.3 microM) blocked the efflux at low Na+, but not at 0 Na+. Lowering the Cl- concentration to 0, 5 or 10 mM resulted i ...
Sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) trigger the systemic release of both cytokines and catecholamines. Cytokines are known to be capable of eliciting a stress hormone response in vivo. The present study sought insight into the effect of noradrenaline on LPS-induced release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in human whole blood. Whole blood was incubated with LPS for 4 h at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of noradrenaline and/or specific alpha and beta antagon ...
Accumulated evidence has indicated that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of Parkinson's disease (PD). Earlier studies have employed the inflammogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation of dopaminergic neurons. Methamphetamine (MA) dopaminergic toxicity similar to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity is frequently cited as a model of PD. In the present study, we examined whether striatal LPS exposure potentiates MA-induced dopaminergic ...
The present study examines the spatial distribution within rat locus coeruleus of neurons projecting to particular brain regions. In order to accurately recreate, in digital and pictorial formats, the spatial distribution of neurons for the entire nucleus locus coeruleus, three-dimensional reconstructions were created which specified the location of each individual Nissl-stained locus coeruleus cell in each of five nuclei. Dynamic computerized displays were visually analyzed and statistically co ...
Impulsivity is a pathological symptom in several psychiatric disorders, underscoring the need for animal models of impulsive action to develop a brief screening method for novel therapeutic agents of impulsive action. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate whether the three-choice serial reaction time task (3-CSRTT), a simple version of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is appropriate for brief assessment of impulsive-like action and (ii) to examine the effects of fluvoxa ...
Little is known about the neural control of female responses to male courtship. Female European starlings in breeding condition with high concentrations of estrogen select mates based on variation in song and approach nest boxes broadcasting male song. In contrast, outside of the breeding season (when estrogen is low) females do not display the same response to male song. The catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine regulate behaviors important for mate choice such as arousal, attention, sexua ...
The diabetes-associated changes in regional brain norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and related adrenergic receptor types were correlated with changes in blood glucose levels and body weight (obesity) in 4-16-week-old C57BL/KsJ (db/db) mice relative to corresponding age-matched control (+/?) parameters. Regional brain (i.e. frontal cortex, septal area, amygdala, hypothalamus and medulla) NE levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and compared to the associated changes i ...
1. The effects of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M), mechanical disruption of the endothelium and hypoxia on contraction to noradrenaline (alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), phenylephrine (alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist) and UK 14304 (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) were compared in the rabbit isolated pulmonary artery. The effects of the selective antagonists rauwolscine (10(-6) M, alpha 2-adrenoceptors) and prazosin (10(-7) M, ...
Rats received intracisternal [(3)H]norepinephrine and, after 5 min, intraperitoneal L-dopa (100 mg/kg); they were killed at intervals during the subsequent 24 hr. Their brains were assayed for norepinephrine, L-dopa, S-adenosylmethionine, and [(3)H]norepinephrine and its metabolites. Rats that received L-dopa had markedly lower brain concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and of O-methylated metabolites of [(3)H]norepinephrine than controls. An increase (15-40%) in brain norepinephrine content a ...
Hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) release regulates arterial pressure by altering sympathetic nervous system activity. Because angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) decreases hypothalamic NE release and this effect may be correlated with a diminished NE synthesis, we hypothesize that Ang-(1-7) down-regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis. We investigated the effect of Ang-(1-7) on centrally TH activity and expression. TH activity was evaluated by the release ...
The feeding responses elicited by injection of norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL) into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were studied at two different times of the dark (active) cycle in male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained ad lib on pure nutrient diets. The feeding response elicited by NE in the PVN, characterized by a potent and selective stimulatory effect on ingestion of the carbohydrate diet, was significantly stronger during the early dark period (+11.7 kcal over ve ...
Studies on the intracoronary administration of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the beating, fibrillating or potassium-aiTested dog heart indicate that the primary action of these compounds on the coronary vessels is vasoconstriction. The vasodilation observed with epinephrine and norepinephrine is probably secondary to the increased rate of myocardial metabolism induced by these drugs. S INCE the early part of the present century numerous reports have appeared concerning the effect of epinephr ...
Vasorelaxant responses to the potassium channel opening drug, pinacidil, were obtained on preparations of pulmonary artery and aorta taken from rats with pulmonary hypertension (induced by chronic hypoxia or monocrotaline) and pre-contracted either submaximally with endothelin-1 (ET-1), PGF2 alpha, U46619 (thromboxane-mimetic) or noradrenaline (NA), or with 80 mM K+. In pulmonary artery, but not aorta, from pulmonary hypertensive rats the maximum relaxant response to pinacidil was increased, whe ...
The effects of four calcium entry blockers (CEBs), diltiazem (D), verapamil (V), nifedipine (NF) and nicardipine (NC), were investigated on Ca2+ concentration-effect curves of rat depolarized (K+, 40 mM) or noradrenaline (NA, 3 microM)-exposed mesenteric resistance vessels. Under control conditions, NA-exposed vessels were more sensitive to Ca2+ (pD2: 4.12 +/- 0.11) than depolarized vessels (pD2: 3.16 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.01) whereas the maximal active wall tensions were not significantly dif ...
Dexfenfluramine has been shown to reduce body weight and lower blood pressure in obese individuals. However. it is not clear whether the blood pressure-lowering effect is due to dexfenfluramine or to the loss of weight. This project was designed to study the effect of a 5-d treatment of dexfenfluramine on blood pressure changes in obese postmenopausal women. Twenty women aged 51-60 y matched for body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2) of 34.5-50.1] were assigned to either the dexfenfluramine group (15 m ...
Recently, we have provided evidence that suggests that ethanol (ETOH) acts at the hypothalamic level to cause depressed serum LH levels and delay the onset of puberty in the female rat; however, the mechanism of this action is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the in vitro effects of ETOH on basal and stimulated LHRH and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from the median eminence (ME) of prepubertal female rats. Brains were removed, and MEs dissected under a stereomicroscope, rinsed, and preincubated i ...
Arterial rings were prepared from the branchial artery, coeliac artery and ventral aorta of the Japanese dogfish Triakis scyllia and used to determine arterial contraction in a myograph. Noradrenaline caused a dose-dependent contraction (10(-9)-3 x 10(-6) M) that was completely inhibited by pre-treatment with 10(-7) M phentolamine. Homologous dogfish angiotensin II (ANG II) ([Asn1, Pro3, Ile5]-ANG II) also caused dose-dependent contraction (10(-9)-3 x 10(-6) M), but phentolamine had no effect on ...
The specific purine-receptor antagonist, arylazido aminopropionyl ATP (ANAPP3), was used to determine if purines released from nerves of the guinea-pig was deferens contribute to the neurogenic response. ANAPP3, which is a photoaffinity label, antagonized contractile responses of the in vitro vas deferens to transmural stimulation, reversibly in the presence of the compound and irreversibly after its photoactivation in the presence of the tissues. The antagonism by ANAPP3 was augmented by deplet ...
Plasma levels of catecholamines and pituitary adrenal hormones were measured in 20 min samples from eight subjects, in one control session and two experimental sessions, while they performed a short-term memory task under quiet of noise conditions. Performing the task led to significant increase in the plasma levels of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline, whereas no variations in growth hormone and dopamine were observed. Similarly, significant changes occurred in urinary catecholamine excret ...
Intravenous administration of the serotonin agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), produced large, dose-dependent increases in epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine in plasma in normal, conscious rats. Elevations in the levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine (10-fold, 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively) were markedly reduced in pithed and splanchnic denervated rats, suggesting that CNS mechanisms are primarily responsible for the effect of m-CPP on catecholamines in plasma. The s ...
Brain tissue specimens from 15 patients dying with neuropathologically confirmed clinical diagnoses of senile dementia, Alzheimer type, and 10 approximately age and sex matched elderly patients without signs of senile change, were compared using a group of neurohistological techniques including scanning electron microscopy. In addition to previously described changes in structure of neurons and neuropil, dramatic changes were noted in the capillary bed. Normal cerebral vessels are characterized ...
Up to 2008, dopamine was the catecholamine that was the most recommended in our intensive care unit (ICU) after fluid resuscitation. However, recently, norepinephrine has become the catecholamine that was most recommended in our ICU after fluid resuscitation. The aim of this study was to determine if there was an efficacy or safety benefit to this protocol therapeutic change in patients with shock admitted to our ICU. The primary outcome variable was ICU mortality. This is a prospective observat ...
The α1-adrenoceptor subtypes of dog prostate were characterized in binding and functional experiments. In saturation experiments, [3H]prazosin bound to α1-adrenoceptors with high affinity. In the displacement experiments, unlabelled prazosin and WB4101 biphasically inhibited the binding of 400 pM [3H]prazosin, suggesting the presence of at least two distinct affinity sites for prazosin or WB4101. The proportion of high-affinity sites was approximately 10%. HV723 also recognized two distinct af ...
A new concept in the design of a push-pull cannula device for localized perfusion of brain tissue in the conscious and/or unrestrained animal is described. A catheter, consisting of a single strand of polyethylene tubing, contains an internal dividing septum which runs longitudinally throughout its length. The orifice of each lumen is of equal diameter and provides an integrated system for simultaneous delivery and withdrawal of a perfusate from the perfusion locus. The principal features of the ...
1. Intraperitoneal administration of nialamide, 200 mg/kg, to mice elicited a pronounced increase in motor activity and rectal temperature concomitant with a gradual increase in the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine in the brain.2. In mice treated with L-tryptophan, 300 mg/kg, 1 h before nialamide, the increase in motor activity appeared earlier than after nialamide alone, and the hyperthermia was more pronounced. The increase in 5-HT concentrations in ...
AIM To probe the changes of vascular responsiveness and intracellular signaling during opiate withdrawal syndrome. METHODS Morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats was precipitated by iv naloxone following daily injection of increasing dose of morphine for 2 weeks, the changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) caused by acetylcholine (ACh) were recorded. Isolated mesenteric vascular beds were perfused with Kreb's solution containing different concentration of drugs. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ...
The antihypertensive action of non diuretic doses of cicletanine, a new antihypertensive compound, has been studied in neurogenic hypertensive dogs. Four months after sinoaortic denervation, Fourteen dogs were randomly allocated into two parallel groups of oral treatment: cicletanine (10 mg/kg/12 h (n = 7)) or placebo (n = 7). Urinary parameters (diuresis, urinary sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine clearance), cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure (BP) and heart rate) and sympathetic ton ...
The number cardiac transplantation has been dramatically increasing for the last year and the results are satisfactory regarding survival or functional capacity. The observed increase of cardiac transplantation may tend to vulgarize it. However, this intervention should be only considered in a selected group of patients who have no other option. Many reports concerned various technical approach for a clearcut determination of high and low risk population of patients with congestive heart failure ...
The dental follicle and papilla are innervated at different stages of tooth development. The type of nerves innervating these structures at different stages was investigated using an enzymic method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and direct visualization for noradrenaline on fetal and neonatal stages up to 7 days after birth. Glandular and muscular tissue were positive for AChE in 17-day fetuses but no reaction was observed in the teeth or supporting tissues up to 7 days after birth. Noradrenali ...
Adult beagle dogs of either sex were injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-HCl (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) alone or after pretreatment with pargyline (5.0 mg/kg, s.c., twice), with pargyline alone, or were uninjected. Groups were killed 2 h, 3 weeks, or 3 months after injection, and several brain areas were assayed for biogenic amines and their synthetic and degradative enzymes. MPTP caused a massive and permanent loss of striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, and 3,4-dihydro ...
Patients with chronic heart failure were evaluated simultaneously by conventional methods and by heart-lung exploration during exercise with the purpose of validating the latter method. Only 50 patients were evaluated on two occasions and therefore included in the correlative statistical study. In this study such data as NYHA classification, cardiothoracic ratio, ejection fraction, echocardiographic fibre shortening fraction and biochemical values (venous lactate, plasma noradrenaline levels) we ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide II (ANP II) raises cyclic GMP and relaxes vascular smooth muscle in vitro. The manner in which ANP II relaxes vascular smooth muscle is unknown but may involve alterations in the concentration of free intracellular Ca++. To examine this possibility, changes in intracellular Ca++ were monitored in rat aortic strips using the Ca++-dependent conversion of phosphorylase b to a, while Ca++ levels and phosphorylase were measured in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. AN ...
Phaeochromocytoma can have a variety of presentations; however, traumatic hemorrhage into a phaeochromocytoma is a very rare presentation. Diagnosing and managing a critically ill, septic patient with a Phaeochromocytoma can be very challenging. We report a case of 53 years old man with a previously undiagnosed Phaeochromocytoma, who presented initially with bowel perforation following an assault. Following a laparotomy for bowel resection and anastomosis, whilst on the intensive care unit, he d ...
Recent studies suggest that a bronchial-derived relaxing factor (BrDRF) decreases the contractility of newborn, but not fetal, rat pulmonary arteries (PAs) by a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. We studied the effect of an adjacent bronchus on PA contractility to norepinephrine (NE) in late-gestation fetal (n = 7), neonatal (1 day old, n = 9), ventilated neonatal (24-h ventilation from birth with 100% oxygen, n = 9), and adult sheep (n = 6) in the presence and absence of the NO synthase inhi ...
The effects of thyroxine (T4) treatment of rats on the neuronal and extraneuronal uptake and subsequent metabolism of catecholamines in the heart were examined, to determine whether changes in the local dissipation of catecholamines might contribute to the enhanced sympathetic cardiac responses that occur when thyroid hormone levels are elevated. T4-treated rats were injected subcutaneously with L-thyroxine sodium 1 mg kg(-1) on days 1, 3 and 5, and controls were injected with the normal saline ...
Duloxetine is a selective serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor approved for treatment of major depressive disorder. So far, duloxetine has been found to be well tolerated and reported cardiac side effects were negligible. However, pharmacological effects on cardiac hERG channels have not been properly addressed yet. hERG channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. Currents were measured using voltage clamp and patch clamp techniques. Channel s ...
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to study the effect of ethanol extract of Clerodendrum serratum (EECS) Linn. on acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced depressive-like behavior and biochemical alterations in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of EECS were analytically characterized for the flavonoid components, apigenin (API) and luteolin (LUT) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Behavioral tests, namely, forced-swim test and tail-susp ...
1. In rabbit isolated perfused ear arteries denuded of endothelium, a low concentration of endothelin-1 (0.1 nmol/L) that had no direct vasoconstrictor action produced slowly developing enhancements of vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline and sympathetic nerve stimulation. The enhancements reached maximal levels after 60 min of exposure to endothelin-1. 2. A higher concentration of endothelin-1 (1 nmol/L), which produced a slow-developing increase in perfusion pressure of 70 mmHg over the ...
Microdialysis was used to assess the interstitial concentrations of glucose and lactate in the constant-flow-perfused rat hindlimb under varying levels of nutritive flow controlled by vasoconstrictors. Increased nutritive flow was achieved by norepinephrine (NE) or angiotensin II (ANG II) and decreased nutritive flow by serotonin (5-HT). NE and ANG II increased oxygen and glucose uptake as well as hindlimb lactate release by 50%. 5-HT decreased oxygen uptake by 15% but had no significant effect ...
The noradrenergic system plays and an important modulatory role in memory consolidation of emotionally arousing tasks. However, the molecular cascades regulated in the brain by norepinephrine and involved in memory formation are still largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of the noradrenergic system on the acquisition of a highly emotionally arousing task-two-way active avoidance training-and its molecular and cellular substrates. The selective norepinephrine ...
Investigations were made on the effects of catecholamine (Cat) infusions with and without ammonia (NH3) on plasma and brain amino acids (AA) and brain neurotransmitters in dogs. Groups of four dogs were infused for 5 h with epinephrine (E), epinephrine + norepinephrine (E + NE), epinephrine + norepinephrine with NH3 during h 4 and 5 (E + NE + NH3), epinephrine + norepinephrine + tryptophan with NH3 during h 4 and 5 (T + E + NE + NH3), or saline (C). Cat decreased (P less than 0.05) plasma Gly, T ...
1. The taenia of the guinea-pig caecum has been used as a model to study the re-establishment of autonomic innervation following transplantation into the anterior eye chamber. The ultrastructure, the histochemical localization of noradrenaline and acetylcholinesterase and the pharmacology of transmission to the taenia have been examined 1 day to 16 weeks following transplantation. Both ganglion-free strips of the taenia and caecal wall segments including the underlying Auerbach's plexus were use ...
The sulcal prefrontal cortex (SPC) influences thermogenesis, energy substrate utilization and feeding behaviour. The present study examined the role of SPC alpha noradrenergic receptors in these effects. Fifty nmol norepinephrine (NE) injected into the SPC produced a large and long-lasting increase in respiratory quotient (RQ), indicating enhanced carbohydrate utilization and fat synthesis. This dose also reduced energy expenditure without corresponding decreases in locomotor activity, suggestin ...
This paper compares noradrenaline content in the different parts of the oviduct in rabbits receiving or not a dose of estradiol-17 beta 24 h before human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and killed 60 h post HCG. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine assays were carried out in the oviduct after aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase was inhibited by m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD 1015) in the same experimental conditions. Pauerstein et al. (1974) have shown that an intramuscular injection of 250 micrograms of estr ...