Sulfur Dioxide (Total 205451 Papers Found)

Influences of moisture content on the catalysis of sulfur dioxide and physical properties of reaction products were examined for a vapor-phase treatment of spruce wood with formaldehyde. The reaction rate was strongly dependent on the amounts of water and sulfur dioxide in the reaction system, and this was consistent with a proposal that the hydroxymethylsulfonic acid (HOCH2SO3H) formed from sulfur dioxide, water, and formaldehyde acts as a catalyst for the reaction. However, not all water molec ...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and risk factors associated with undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) among hypertensive patients. BACKGROUND OSA has been deemed a cardinal risk factor affecting cardiovascular event, the condition is still frequently overlooked clinically. The lack of advanced diagnosis often causes hypertensive patients with OSA to miss opportunities for preventing chronic diseases. DESIGN A cross-sectional design. METHODS A total of 215 hypertensi ...
There are more than 3000 natural geothermal outcrops in China. The two high temperature geothermal areas in China include the Taiwan geothermal zone and the Himalayan geothermal zone. Low temperature geothermal areas are widely distributed in the vast area of Chinese mainland. The distribution of hot springs, geothermal wells and heat flow are controlled by geological structure. Taking the Ordos Basin and the Sichuang Basin as the centre, the geothermal areas in China can be divided into three s ...
During the last 2 years we developed a planetary robot station, which consists of a lander and several rovers around. The lander is a Hunveyor type [1-2], the rovers has analytical (mostly chemical) activities around the station. We successfully used the planetary station unit in education of planetary geology, in the construction, building, experiment planning of robotics and optical sensor measurements in chemistry. We report 3 types of results: a) chassis arrangement with 3 driven wheel pairs ...
A study into the effects of atmospheric pollution on the health of people living in the city of Parma (population 170,000) shows motor vehicle traffic of average density and light industrial activities that have little impact on air pollution. General mortality and hospitalisation for all causes and for DRG specific were considered as sanitary events. The day values of the total PT, PM10, SO2 and NO2, CO and benzene were analysed. In addition, atmospheric conditions and outbreaks of flu were con ...
Feulgen nuclear staining with pararosanilin-SO2 was combined with the ninhydrin-Schiff technique. The aldehyde groups converted from primary amino groups are stained with an acriflavine-Schiff reaction. This results in a red nuclear fluorescence and a bright yellow cytoplasmic and nuclear fluorescence. The combined fluorescence staining facilitates cytofluorometric determination of total protein and DNA in the same cell. The ninhydrin-Schiff reaction is affected by the fixation procedure and the ...
Forests in Britain produce social and environmental benefits, in addition to marketable timber outputs. One such non-market benefit is the reduction in air pollution, linked to health impacts (mortality and morbidity). This study assesses the benefits of SO2 and PM10 absorption by trees in terms of extending life expectancy of the population and reducing hospital admissions. Working at a resolution of 1 km2 with woodland over 2 ha, it is estimated that, for Britain as a whole, woodland saves bet ...
Environmental pollutants seem to be responsible for dramatical increase of allergic disorders that have been observed lately. The best documented environmental factors facilitating allergy development are: ozone, diesel-exhaust particulate matter and tobacco smoke. Formaldehyde and SO2 seem to be also very important but still are not sufficiently documented. Mechanisms involved in allergy promotion include: better penetration of allergens across respiratory mucosa or direct modulation of immunol ...
Breathing route has a profound effect on sulfur dioxide-induced pulmonary function response in human subjects. There is comparatively little evidence of the effects of oral, nasal, and oronasal breathing on ozone (O3)-induced responses in humans. In this study, six young adult males were exposed on five occasions to 0.40 parts per million (ppm) O3 while exercising continuously at one of two workloads (minute ventilation, VE, of approximately 30 and 75 l/min). The VE exposure time product was sim ...
Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and veno ...
The prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders was assessed in 9-11 year-old children in Leipzig and Halle in East Germany, as well as in Munich, West Germany. Both East German cities are heavily polluted due to private burning of coal and industrial emissions, while Munich has low smoke emissions but heavy road traffic. All fourth grade pupils in Munich were compared with those in Leipzig and Halle. Non-specific airway disease (bronchitis), cough, and autumn/winter nasal symptoms were most pre ...
The aim of this paper is to empirically explore the relationship between environmental pollutants, economic growth and energy efficiency indicators towards energy efficiency targets of Europe 2020 2030 strategy within EU countries from 2005 to 2013 by utilizing a Dynamic Panel Generalized Method of Moments approach. The results show that economic growth positively affects environmental pollutants such as SO2, NOx, NMVOC and GGE (CO2 equivalent). This implies that that Environmental Kuznets Curve ...
Due to the rapid increase of electricity demand, consideration of environmental constraints in optimal power flow (OPF) problems is increasingly important. In Algeria up to 90% of the electricity demand produced by thermal generators (vapor, gas), in order to keep the emission of gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen (NO2) under the admissible ecological limits, many conventional and global optimization methods proposed to study the trade-off relation between fuel cost and em ...
UNLABELLED Regulatory agencies have shifted their emphasis from measuring emissions during certification cycles to measuring emissions during actual use. Emission measurements in this research were made from two different large ships at sea to compare the Simplified Measurement Method (SMM) compliant with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) NOx Technical Code to the Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) compliant with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 Code of Fede ...
We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient t ...
Conclusive establishment of health effects of adverse environmental factors (anthropogenic or natural contamination of the environment in particular) is one of the bases of the analytical section of the system of socio-hygienic monitoring (SHM). Such links are used within SHM immediately in the study areas and during substantiation of generalized “exposure – response” relationships necessary for prognostic risk assessments. The most important distinctive features of the modern methodology ...
We report the discovery of an η2-SO2 linkage photoisomer in the osmium pentaammine coordination complex, [Os(NH3)5(SO2)][Os(NH3)5(HSO3)]Cl4 (1). Its dark- and light-induced crystal structures are determined via synchrotron X-ray crystallography, at 100 K, where the photoinduced state is metastable in a single crystal that has been stimulated by 505 nm light for 2.5 h. The SO2 photoisomer in the [Os(NH3)5(SO2)]2+ cation contrasts starkly with the photoinactivity of the HSO3 ligand in its compani ...
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant found both in indoor and outdoor environments. Studies of controlled human exposure as well as epidemiological and animal investigations have documented several short- and long-term effects of SO2 exposure on the respiratory and other systems. Exercise, duration and other exposure factors may potentiate the pollutant's effects, especially in sensitive individuals such as children and asthmatics. Early postnatal somatic and behavioural alterations h ...
On-line detectable indicator parameters in the flue gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) such as chlorinated benzenes (PCBz) are well known surrogate compounds for gas-phase PCDD/PCDF concentration. In the here presented work derivation of indicators is broadened to the detection of fly and boiler ash fractions with increased PCDD/PCDF content. Subsequently these fractions could be subject to further treatment such as recirculation in the combustion chamber to destroy their PCDD/PCDF ...
The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will ...
Human nature being what it is, we tend to look at the past through a rather distorted lens; this is because of a combination of many factors. For example television and our own environment and experiences give us preconceived notions of what things were like back then and, additionally, we have a general tendency to imagine that things were just better back then. Ah, the good old days! Unsurprisingly, these romanticisms apply equally to chemistry as they do to any other human endeavour. When we ...
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  • 2011
Introduction: CI carbonaceous chondrites are unique rocks with solar composition (except C, N, O, and H) that were aqueously altered within several Ma after formation of the solar system. The alteration occurred in parent asteroid(s) below ~150 C [1] and led to the formation of serpentine, saponite, magnetite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates [2-4], and caused alteration of organic compounds. Hydration and oxidation were the major alteration processes. Throughout alt ...
The combined effects of cyanide ( C N ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on living tissue are unknown. Many of the interactions of CN with cellular enzymes including its high affinity binding to cytochrome oxidase have been known for a number of years [1]. The enzyme-CN complex achieved cannot be reduced, resulting in a blockage of electron transport and almost complete elimination of tissues O2 uptake [1, 2]. The above is true for animal tissue when most substrates are used, but in plants, a unique CN- ...
This paper reports the colorimetric determination of total SO2 in Zirantong by the method of rosaniline hydrochlorid. Samper of processed Zirantong from the pharmacy have been analyzed and the quality specifications established. Optimum conditions for processing have been chosen and a procedure has been proposed for the recovery of the poisonous matter SO2 which is then transformed into a beneficial material. ...
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  • 2014
Flue gas desulfurization is commonly known as FGD and is the technology used for removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the exhaust combustion flue gases of power plants that burn coal oroil to produce steam for the turbines that drive their electricity generators. The most common types of FGD contact the flue gases with an alkaline sorbent such as lime or limestone. As sulfur dioxide is responsible for acid rain formation, stringent environmental protection regulations have been enacted in many cou ...
We model cost-effectiveness of control strategies for reducing SO2 emissions from U.S. foreign commerce ships traveling in existing European or hypothetical U.S. West Coast SO(x) Emission Control Areas (SECAs) under international maritime regulations. Variation among marginal costs of control for individual ships choosing between fuel-switching and aftertreatment reveals cost-saving potential of economic incentive instruments. Compared to regulations prescribing low sulfur fuels, a performance-b ...
Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol–cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014–2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets—consistent with expectat ...
The uptake of SO2 on Saharan dust: a flow tube study J. W. Adams, D. Rodriguez, and R. A. Cox Centre for Atmospheric Science, Chemistry Department, University of Cambridge, UK Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, Campus Tecnologico, 45071-Toledo, Spain Received: 24 February 2005 – Accepted: 10 March 2005 – Published: 3 May 2005 Correspondence to: R. A. Cox (rac26@cam.ac.uk) © 2005 Author(s). This wo ...
We estimated PM2.5-related public health impacts/ton emitted of primary PM2.5, SO2, and NOx for a set of power plants in the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes regions of the United States, selected to include varying emission profiles and broad geographic representation. We then developed a regression model explaining variability in impacts per ton emitted using the population distributions around each plant. We linked outputs from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v 4.7.1 with ...
Light-induced metastable linkage isomers of trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)Cl(SO(2))]Cl and trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)(H(2)O)(SO(2))](C(6)H(5)SO(3))(2) have been identified for the first time using photocrystallographic methods. In both linkage isomers the SO(2) ligand is side bound, but the Ru-O and Ru-S distances are considerably longer and almost equal in the trans-H(2)O isomer. DFT calculations confirm that both isomers correspond to minima on the ground-state potential energy surface and also predict the exis ...
Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for poll ...
The potato granules for this experiment were manufactured in a pilot plant designed as an ordinary commercial potato granule plant. Only the fraction sifted through a U.S. No. 50 screen was used for the tests. Ascorbic acid diluted in water was added to the potatoes previous to drying. The total C-vitamin content was 810 ppm., bone dry basis right after drying. The SO2 content was 324 ppm, bone dry basis. Three samples of 200 grams each, in beakers, were placed in three desiccators. The humidity ...
  • Quan-lin Zhong,
  • Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology
  • 2004
Based on the late years' data of forest resources, climate, hydrology and atmosphere in Jinggang Mountain region and by the methods of canonical correlation analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression, this paper analyzed the influence of forests on the climate, water quality and atmosphere of this region. The results showed that forest volume had an evident effect on maximum daily precipitation, extreme highest air temperature and atmospheric SO2 concentration, and on COD(cr) and ammonic n ...
Novel iron-tungsten catalysts were first developed for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 in diesel exhaust, achieving an excellent performance with a wide operating temperature window above 90% NOx conversion from 225 or 250 to 450 °C (GHSVs of 30 000 or 50 000 h-1). It also exhibited a pronounced stability and relatively high NOx conversion in the presence of H2O, SO2 and CO2. The introduction of W resulted in the formation of α-Fe2O3 and FeWO4 species obtained by HRTEM dire ...
On-road measurements in 2005 of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide from 1641 individually identified heavy-duty diesel trucks at two locations in Colorado are reported. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide show increasing emissions with increased altitude. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions have decreased with more recent model years over the last 10 years but are the same as vehicles that are 20 years old. At the Golden, CO site, there was a stati ...
To evaluate the relative importance of various measures of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality in Inchon, South Korea, the association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 20-month period (January 1995 through August 1996). Poisson regression was used to regress daily death counts on each air pollutant, controlling for time trends, season, and meteorologic influences such as temperature and relative humidity. Regression coeffic ...
Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health ...
Ionization and in source-fragmentation behavior of four fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) (4:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH) and four N-alkyl fluorooctane sulfonamides/-ethanols (N-MeFOSA, N-EtFOSA, N-MeFOSE and N-EtFOSE) by APCI has been studied and compared with the traditionally used EI and CI. Protonated molecule was the base peak of the APCI spectrum in all cases giving the possibility of selecting it as a precursor ion for MS/MS experiments. Following, CID fragmentation showed common ...
To establish a relationship between levels of atmospheric pollutants such as SO2 and the acid–base chemistry of lakes is an important but elusive goal of studies on acid precipitation. But the direct effect of acid deposition on the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of lake waters is difficult to isolate, because rates of change of the latter are small1 and ANC is also influenced by other factors2,3. We report here the observation of changes in the ANC of a seepage lake in Michigan driven by th ...
Mucociliary clearance is usually estimated in vivo by the measurement of mucus transfer or by clearance of radio-active tracers previously deposited in the airways. These methods are relatively difficult and complex so that for routine studies measures are usually made of ciliary activity. To clarify the consequences of changes in activity the authors have established the relationship between the speed of mucus transport and the frequency of ciliary beating. From their own studies and from evide ...
Pollen allergy is the most typical form of allergic diseases. The increase in its frequency during recent years is most evident. The disease was rare when it was first described 150 years ago as summer hay fever. In 1876 Blackley wrote that the frequency of pollen allergy was increasing, especially in industrialized countries. Nowadays the prevalence of pollen allergy is well above 10%. Among the patients predominate the inhabitants of large cities, but not rural residents. Allergy develops as a ...
The sulfur dioxide (SO2) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces emissions in low damage areas (rural) while increasing emissions in high damage areas (cities). From 2000 to 2007, conservative estimates of the value of mortality ri ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the important technological and fermentative properties of wine yeast strains previously isolated from different wine producing regions of Turkey. The determination of the following important properties was made: growth at high temperatures; fermentative capability in the presence of high sugar concentration; fermentation rate; hydrogen sulfide production; killer activity; resistance to high ethanol and sulfur dioxide; foam production; and enzymatic prof ...
Dry deposition contributes a substantial part of the total deposition of acidic pollutants and acid precursors to agricultural systems. However, because of the relative intractability of measurement of dry deposition fluxes, little work has been done to directly quantify dry inputs of pollutants to crops. In this research, foliar surface sampling ('leaf-washing') methods were developed and shown to be a practical and fairly precise means of monitoring the accumulation of dry-deposited SO4(2-) an ...
Sulfur dioxide reactions with calcium carbonate interfaces at 296 K in the presence and absence of adsorbed water result in the formation of adsorbed sulfite and sulfate. The extent of reaction is significantly enhanced, approximately five- to ten-fold for particulate and single crystal CaCO(3) (calcite), respectively, in the presence of adsorbed water between 30 and 85% RH. Atomic force microscopy following the reaction shows that adsorbed water facilitates surface reactivity by enhancing the m ...
We discuss over 120 laboratory experiments pertaining to the identification of the new absorption band discovered by Trafton et al. (1991) at 4705.2 cm-1 (2.1253 micrometers) in the spectrum of Io. It is shown that this band is not due to overtones or combinations of the fundamental bands associated with the molecules (or their chemical complexes) already identified on Io, namely, SO2, H2S, and H2O. Thus, this band is due to a new, previously unidentified, component of Io. Experiments also de ...
Highlights 21 • Method brings results from detailed chemical transport models to policy analysis. 22 • Method estimates marginal social cost and intake fraction accurately and quickly. 23 • Reduced-form models produce errors comparable to state-of-the-art models' 24 errors. Abstract 26 It is challenging to estimate the public health costs of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and 27 its precursor emissions accurately and quickly for policy research because of their 28 complex physical and ch ...